Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine at Tufts University
Saul Tzipori

Distinguished Professor of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Agnes Varis University Chair in Science and Society
Chair, Department of Infectious Disease and Global Health

Infectious Disease, Enteric Infections and Host Response

Campus Phone:



  • FRCVS - Fellow Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons, London - 1990
  • DSc - University of Melbourne, Australia - 1985
  • Ph.D. - University of Queensland, Australia - 1974
  • DVM - (BVSc) - University of Queensland, Australia - 1970
  1. Infection with Cryptosporidium hominis Provides Incomplete Protection of the Host Against Cryptosporidium parvum. Sheoran A, Wiffin A, Widmer G, Singh P, Tzipori S. J Infect Dis. 2012 Jan 25.
  2. A novel strategy for development of recombinant antitoxin therapeutics tested in a mouse botulism model. Mukherjee J, Tremblay JM, Leysath CE, Ofori K, Baldwin K, Feng X, Bedenice D, Webb RP, Wright PM, Smith LA, Tzipori S, Shoemaker CB. PLoS One. 2012;7(1):e29941.
  3. Sublingual immunization with an engineered Bacillus subtilis strain expressing tetanus toxin fragment C induces systemic and mucosal immune responses in piglets. Amuguni H, Lee S, Kerstein K, Brown D, Belitsky B, Herrmann J, Keusch G, Sonenshein A, Tzipori S. Microbes Infect. 2011 Dec 8.
  4. Systemic Dissemination of Clostridium difficile Toxins A and B Is Associated With Severe, Fatal Disease in Animal Models. Steele J, Chen K, Sun X, Zhang Y, Wang H, Tzipori S, Feng H. J Infect Dis. 2012 Feb;205(3):384-91.
  5. Enhanced Actin Pedestal Formation by Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 Adapted to the Mammalian Host.  Brady MJ, Radhakrishnan P, Liu H, Magoun L, Murphy KC, Mukherjee J, Donohue-Rolfe A, Tzipori S, Leong JM. Front Microbiol. 2011;2:226.
  6. Characterizing the Escherichia coli O157:H7 proteome including protein associations with higher order assemblies. Pieper R, Zhang Q, Clark DJ, Huang ST, Suh MJ, Braisted JC, Payne SH, Fleischmann RD, Peterson SN, Tzipori S. PLoS One. 2011;6(11):e26554.
  7. Tegumental phosphodiesterase SmNPP-5 is a virulence factor for schistosomes. Bhardwaj R, Krautz-Peterson G, Da'dara A, Tzipori S, Skelly PJ. Infect Immun. 2011 Oct;79(10):4276-84.
  8. Cryptosporidium meleagridis: infectivity in healthy adult volunteers. Chappell CL, Okhuysen PC, Langer-Curry RC, Akiyoshi DE, Widmer G, Tzipori S. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2011 Aug;85(2):238-42.
  9. In vivo versus in vitro protein abundance analysis of Shigella dysenteriae type 1 reveals changes in the expression of proteins involved in virulence, stress and energy metabolism. Kuntumalla S, Zhang Q, Braisted JC, Fleischmann RD, Peterson SN, Donohue-Rolfe A, Tzipori S, Pieper R. BMC Microbiol. 2011 Jun 24;11:147.
  10. Sublingually administered Bacillus subtilis cells expressing tetanus toxin C fragment induce protective systemic and mucosal antibodies against tetanus toxin in mice. Amuguni JH, Lee S, Kerstein KO, Brown DW, Belitsky BR, Herrmann JE, Keusch GT, Sonenshein AL, Tzipori S. Vaccine. 2011 Jun 24;29(29-30):4778-84.
  11. Cryptosporidiosis in rhesus macaques challenged during acute and chronic phases of SIV infection. Singh I, Carville A, Tzipori S. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2011 Sep;27(9):989-97.
  12. MyD88-dependent pathway is essential for the innate immunity to Enterocytozoon bieneusi. Zhang Q, Feng X, Nie W, Golenbock DT, Mayanja-Kizza H, Tzipori S, Feng H. Parasite Immunol. 2011 Apr;33(4):217-25.
  13. Involvement of host calpain in the invasion of Cryptosporidium parvum. Perez-Cordon G, Nie W, Schmidt D, Tzipori S, Feng H. Microbes Infect. 2011 Jan;13(1):103-7.
  14. Development of a Bacillus subtilis-based rotavirus vaccine. Lee S, Belitsky BR, Brinker JP, Kerstein KO, Brown DW, Clements JD, Keusch GT, Tzipori S, Sonenshein AL, Herrmann JE.Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2010 Nov;17(11):1647-55.
  15. Efficacy, heat stability and safety of intranasally administered Bacillus subtilis spore or vegetative cell vaccines expressing tetanus toxin fragment C. Lee S, Belitsky BR, Brown DW, Brinker JP, Kerstein KO, Herrmann JE, Keusch GT, Sonenshein AL, Tzipori S. Vaccine. 2010 Sep 24;28(41):6658-65.

General Research Interests

Enteric infections and the host response; this includes viral, bacterial and protozoan pathogens of veterinary and medical importance causing acute or chronic diarrhea in the immunocompetent or the immunodeficient host. In recent years investigations have focused specifically on:
  • The biology, pathogenesis, immunology, epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control of cryptosporidiosis and microsporidiosis in children from developing countries, and in individuals with HIV/AIDS.
  • Mechanisms of disease caused by Shiga-toxin producing E. coli(STEC), and development of therapy against the associated hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) - a complicating acute kidney failure in children.
  • Development of botulinum antitoxin therapy and control of intoxication in humans.
  • Development of strategies for identification, characterization and risk assessment of food and waterborne pathogens.
  • Development and preclinical evaluation of temperature-resistant and needle-free human vaccines for developing countries.
  • Clostridium difficile Disease: Investigations on the biology, pathogenesis, and development of therapy and vaccines.
  • Characterization of the human microbiome in the germfree pig model to investigate human gastrointestinal disorders.
  • Global health and RESPOND: a USAID sponsored project under EPT (Emerging Pandemic Threats).

Selected Research Projects

  • Respiratory cryptosporidiosis in Uganda.
  • Immune based therapy against hemolytic uremic syndrome caused by shiga-toxin producing E. coli.
  • Botulinum biology and development of antitoxin therapy.
  • Investigations on the infant and adult human microbiomes in the germfree piglet model.
  • Development and evaluation of Bacillus subtilis as a delivery system of temperature resistant and non-invasive vaccines.
  • Preclinical evaluation of enteric vaccines against shigellosis.
  • Clostridium difficile: studies on; a) vaccine development and methods of administration; b) development and evaluation of  antimicrobial agents; c) development and evaluation of immune-based therapeutics; d) development of animal models to investigate pathogenic mechanisms.
  • Development and use of a thigh mouse model to specifically test drugs against multidrug resistant bacteria.

Research Interests by Area

Infectious Diseases: Prevention and Control
  • Botulism antidotes and anti-toxins
  • Therapy for cryptosporidiosis, Vaccine delivery systems, Monoclonal antibodies to HUS prophylaxis, botulism antidote
Infectious Diseases: Genetics and Genomics
  • Cryptosporidium genome sequencing
Infectious Diseases: Pathogenesis/Host Response
  • Pathogenesis of cryptosporidium parvum, microsporidium, E. Coli O157