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Sandra Ayres

Sandra Ayres
Assistant Professor
Goat Reproduction, Transgenics, Cloning, Theriogenology
Section of Neuroscience and Reproductive Biology

Campus Phone:



  • DVM with Thesis - Tufts University - 1993
  • MA - Duke University - 1973
  • BS - Duke University - 1971

Board Certification

  • American College of Theriogenologists, 1999
  1. LoPinto, A.J., Pirie, C.G., Ayres, S.L., Bedenice, D. 2017. Comparison of indocyanine green and sodium fluorescein for anterior segment angiography of ophthalmically normal eyes of goats, sheep, and alpacas performed with a digital single-lens reflex camera adaptor. American Journal of Veterinary Research.
  2. Lopinto, A.J., Pirie, C.G., Bedenice, D., Ayres, S.L. 2017. Corneal thickness of eyes of healthy goats, sheep, and alpacas manually measured by use of a portable spectral-domain optical coherence tomography device. American Journal of Veterinary Research.
  3. Ayres, S.L., Gavin, W., Memili, E., Behboodi, E. 2012. Superovulation in goats during the second follicular wave, with or without exogenous progesterone. Small Ruminant Research.
  4. Zeng, W., Tang, L., Bondareva, A., Luo, J., Megee, S.O., Modelski, M., Blash, S., Melican, D.T., Destrempes, M.M., Overton, S.A., Gavin, W.G., Ayres, S., Echelard, Y., Dobrinski, I. 2012. Non-viral transfection of goat germline stem cells by nucleofection results in production of transgenic sperm after germ cell transplantation. Molecular Reproduction and Development.
  5. Cunneen, M., Ayres, S. 2011. Surgical management of the goat. Lab Animal.
  6. Dorosko, S.M., Ayres, S.L., Connor, R.I. 2008. Induction of HIV-1 MPR649-684-specific IgA and IgG antibodies in caprine colostrum using a peptide-based vaccine. Vaccine.
  7. Honaramooz, A., Megee, S., Zeng, W., Destrempes, M.M., Overton, S.A., Luo, J., Galantino-Homer, H., Modelski, M., Chen, F., Blash, S., Melican, D.T., Gavin, W.G., Ayres, S., Yang, F., Wang, P.J., Echelard, Y., Dobrinski, I. 2008. Adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated transduction of male germ line stem cells results in transgene transmission after germ cell transplantation. FASEB Journal.
  8. Ayres, S.L. 2006. Reproductive Health Program. Current Therapy in Large Animal Theriogenology: Second Edition.
  9. Honaramooz, A., Behboodi, E., Hausler, C.L., Blash, S., Ayres, S., Azuma, C., Echelard, Y., Dobrinski, I. 2005. Depletion of endogenous germ cells in male pigs and goats in preparation for germ cell transplantation. Journal of Andrology.
  10. Behboodi, E., Ayres, S.L., Memili, E., O'Coin, M., Chen, L.H., Reggio, B.C., Landry, A.M., Gavin, W.G., Meade, H.M., Godke, R.A., Echelard, Y. 2005. Health and reproductive profiles of malaria antigen-producing transgenic goats derived by somatic cell nuclear transfer. Cloning and Stem Cells.
  11. Singer, L.A., Kumar, M.S.A., Gavin, W., Ayres, S.L. 2004. Predicting the onset of parturition in the goat by determining progesterone levels by enzyme immunoassay. Small Ruminant Research.
  12. Karuri, A.R., Ayres, S., Kumar, M.S.A. 2000. Regional distribution of gonadotropin-releasing hormone-like, β-endorphin-like, and methionine-enkephalin-like immunoreactivities in the central nervous system of the goat. Brain Research Bulletin.
  13. Baguisi, A., Behboodi, E., Melican, D.T., Pollock, J.S., Destrempes, M.M., Cammuso, C., Williams, J.L., Nims, S.D., Porter, C.A., Midura, P., Palacios, M.J., Ayres, S.L., Denniston, R.S., Hayes, M.L., Ziomek, C.A., Meade, H.M., Godke, R.A., Gavin, W.G., Overström, E.W., Echelard, Y. 1999. Production of goats by somatic cell nuclear transfer. Nature Biotechnology.
  14. Ebert, K.M., Ditullio, P., Barry, C.A., Schindler, J.E., Ayres, S.L., Smith, T.E., Pellerin, L.J., Meade, H.M., Denman, J., Roberts, B. 1994. Induction of human tissue plasminogen activator in the mammary gland of transgenic golats. Bio/Technology.

General Research Interests

  • Caprine Reproduction: Advanced reproductive techniques, particularly in relationship to transgenics and cloning.

Selected Research Projects

  • Production of Cloned Goats
  • Superovulation in Goats without the Use of Exogenous Progesterone
  • Use of a Vital Fluorescent Stain to Detect Apoptosis in Oocytes and Embryos
  • Development of a Short Progesterone Protocol for Superovulation in Goats

Research Interests by Area

Neuroscience and Reproductive Biology
  • Advanced Reproductive Techniques and Population Control

    The regulation and control of reproduction in domestic and wild animals is a critical are of One Health, with outcomes impacting humans, animals and the environment. Optimizing methods and technologies that can improve reproductive outcomes and control population growth requires an in depth knowledge of species-specific reproductive physiology. Currently, advanced reproductive techniques (ART) research within the section includes studies investigating the regulation of the estrous cycle in small ruminants in an effort to better understand the hormonal physiology of superovulation and out of season breeding.  Previous studies have applied ART to the production of transgenic and cloned small ruminants. With regard to population control, recent work involves a project aimed at developing novel therapeutics for controlling populations of feral cats and dogs. In addition, two ongoing projects within the section are aimed at assessing and implementing population control of wild horses and white tailed deer. Learn more.

Reproductive Biology and Neuroscience
  • Refinement of oocyte collection in the goat

Major Specialized Equipment

  • Fluorescence microscope
  • Microinjection microscope